Secondary Sources and Document Packages

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Secondary Source:

Ada Ferrer, “Haiti, Free Soil, and Antislavery in the Revolutionary Atlantic,” The American Historical Review, 117, no. 1 (2012): 40-66

Primary Sources:

“Free Soil” Document Package The National Archives of the United Kingdom, ADM 1/268

1816 Constitution


Secondary Source:

Rebecca Scott and Jean Hébrard, Freedom Papers: An Atlantic Odyssey in the Age of Emancipation, (Harvard University Press, 2012).

Primary Source:

Edouard Tinchant to Maximo Gomez, 21 September 1899

(Many thanks to Rebecca Scott for generously sharing this source!)


Secondary Source:

Jane Landers, Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions, (Harvard University Press, 2010).

Primary Sources:

National Register, 3 January 1818

Ricketts to the Earl of Balcarres, 28 May 1799

Alexander Semple to Mcfernan, 16 December 1786

Frederika Bremer, The Homes of the New World: Impressions of America

Toussaint Louverture to Biassou, 15 October 1791

(Many thanks to Jane Landers for generously sharing these sources!)


Secondary Source:

Jennifer Palmer, Intimate Bonds: Family and Slavery in the French Atlantic, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016).

Primary Source:

The Code Noir, 1685


Secondary Source:

Christian Ayne Crouch, Nobility Lost: French and Canadian Martial Cultures, Indians, and the end of New France, (Cornell University Press, 2014).

Primary Sources:

Governor Duquesne to French Minister, 25 October 1752

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The image from Map created by General James Murray; five copies were made of this enormous map to gather intelligence on Britain’s newly acquired territory in Canada from the 1760 conquest. William L. Clements Library.

(Many thanks to Christian Crouch for generously sharing these sources!)


Secondary Source:

Nathan Perl-Rosenthal, Citizen Sailors: Becoming American in the Age of Revolution, (Harvard University Press, 2015).

Primary Sources:

Seamen Protection Act, Wolcott to Collectors of Customs, 19 July 1796, Treasury Circulars, Records Department of the Treasury, vol. 1, LOC.

Shepherd Bourn, Miscellaneous Correspondence Regarding Impressed Seamen, NARA RG 59.

John and Charles Lewis, Miscellaneous Correspondence Regarding Impressed Seamen, NARA RG 59.

(Many thanks to Nathan Perl-Rosenthal for generously sharing these sources!)


Secondary Source:

Ashli White, Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic, (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010).

Primary Sources:

Abraham Bishop, The Rights of Black Men, 22 November 1791, The Argus, Boston, MA

Abraham Bishop, The Rights of Black Men, 25 November 1791, The Argus, Boston, MA

Abraham Bishop, The Rights of Black Men, 2 December 1791, The Argus, Boston, MA

(Many thanks to Ashli White for suggesting these sources!)